Frequently asked questions about (((eTicket

An eTicket is a ticket that stores the authorisation to travel, meaning the ticket itself, electronically on a chip (e.g. on a smart card or NFC-enabled telephone). The validity of the eTicket can then be checked using an electronic reader.

The eTicket offers both customers and companies a range of advantages. Users no longer have to understand the fare structure or know how to use ticket machines. And there is no need to make sure you have enough change. If a chip card (or another user medium) is lost, the eTicket is easy to block and can be replaced immediately. Paper tickets do not have to be replaced each month or year.

Transport providers and associations no longer have to send their customers monthly or annual tickets. That saves time and money, and is good for the enviroment.

Unlike paper tickets, eTickets also allow their validity to be inspected qualitatively, making it easy to identify fare evasion and avoidance. It also allows the exact allocation of income to the appropriate transport provider.



For technical reasons, a smartcard can usally be used for five years. Then it has to be replaced. The issuing transport provider would normally send the new smart card to the customer well in advance.

Customers receive their eTickets directly from the transport provider or association. Subscribers will receive thier smart card automatically by post, or be able to pick it up from a customer centre. Transport providers that already issue individual tickets in eTicket form will also make the user medium available at thier customer centres.

The time rquired to inspect a ticket varies slightly depending on the manufacturer of the reader. Inspections currently take approximately 1-2 seconds.

Yes. It actually doesn't matter which user medium is used to store the eTicket. However, it is important that the user medium's chip has sufficient memory.

While the smart card is currently by far the most common user medium, any obect could potentially serve as a user medium. For example, a watch, keyring or, above all, any NFC-enabled smartphone could be used as a carrier medium.

The eTicket only holds absolutely essential data: the user's name, gender and date of birth. No other personal data about the user is stored on the chip. Of course, it also holds information about the appropriate ticket.



In order to comply thigh the Directive on Data Reduction and Data Economy (§ 3a Federal Data Protections Act), in the case of non-anonymised data that is required for billing, a user's master data and other data recorded with regard to a journey must be processed separately. Data used for the purposes of generating statistics, for planning purposes or for the optimisation of travel offerings are stored and processed without reference to the individual user. The user's master and billing data are only used for the purposes of billing, or for the handling of complaints. 

Electronic fare management (EFM) system operators only share pseudonymous data (authorization related data) for billing purposes. In the case of non-anonymised use of data, the transport provider that makes the data available, meaning the provider that concluded the contract with the customer, may only make the user's identity available if they have given their written consent.

Personal data stored on the user medium can only be accessed by an authorised terminal after entry of a PIN or following asymmetric authorisation.

Insofar as no legal retention period applies to personal or pseudonymous billing data, all personal or pseudonymous data created in the course of a journey is deleted or fully anonymised by the EFM operator or customer's contractual partner.

An eTicket system cannot operate without central systems. They include the central exchange (ZVM), the blocking list service (KOSE), the ASM tool (appplication security management tool) and PKI.

Electronic fare management (EFM) systems are interoperable if they allow the user to use the public transport offerings of the various transport providers and associations with a single medium.

The check in/check out process (cico) means the customer must check in using an (((eTicket terminal in the vehicle or, if available, in advance on the platform when they begin their journey. If the customer changes to another route they must check in again so that the background system can calculate the correct fare. At the end of the journey the customer again holds their eTicket up to the (((eTicket terminal (to check out).

In the "be in/be out" process, the customer only has to have their user medium with them. Unlike the "check in/check out" process, they do not have to take any action. The vehicle's equipment can recognise when a customer enters or leaves and the fare is calculated automatically (in the case of an individual ticket).

The "check in/be out" process initially works in the same way as the "cico" process. The customer registers using an (((eTicket terminal when they begin their journey but does not have to take any further action, when teir journey ends.

This process ist currently used for the "90 minute ticket" in Münster.

In such cases the transport provider will decide which fare applies.

All hardware and software components required for the functioning of an (((eTicket Deutschland system can be certified. They include smart cards, control units, terminals and background systems.

Customers who lose their smart card, or whose card is stolen, can simply have the eTicket blockes by their transport provider or association. Depending on the providerÄs offering, this can be done in a customer centre, on the telephone or online.

Yes - if you lose your user medium you can have the eTicket blocked. This usually involves making a telephone call or sending an e-mail to your transport provider.

The eTicket is stored in the smartphone's NFC chip. The chip has an independent power supply. That means the smartphone battery does not affect the functioning of the eTicket.

The VDV Core Application was developed to allow it to replicate every possible tariff and issue eTickets accordingly.